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The loudness or softness of a composition. The term piano (p) is used to indicate softness and forte (f) to indicate loudness. Each of these is augmented if the letter symbolizing it is doubled or tripled (e.g. "pp" - "pianissimo", "very soft"; "ppp"  - "pianississimo", "very, very soft"). Each is also lessened if proceeded by mezzo (m) (e.g. "mf" - "mezzo forte", "somewhat loud"). Also included in dynamics are the crescendo ("slowly growing louder"), decrescendo ("slowly growing softer"), and the sforzando ("sudden loudness").
See more about dynamic marks in the Appendix.