The loudness or softness of a composition. The term piano (p) is used to indicate softness and forte (f) to indicate loudness. Each of these is augmented if the letter symbolizing it is doubled or tripled (e.g. "pp" - "pianissimo", "very soft"; "ppp" - "pianississimo", "very, very soft"). Each is also lessened if proceeded by mezzo (m) (e.g. "mf" - "mezzo forte", "somewhat loud"). Also included in dynamics are the crescendo ("slowly growing louder"), decrescendo ("slowly growing softer"), and the sforzando ("sudden loudness").
Gabriel Fauré: Pelléas et Mélisande, "Sicilienne"
Dynamics, mezzo-piano: Maurice Ravel: Boléro (oboe d'amore)
Dynamics, crescendo: Gustav Holst: The Planets, Op. 32, "Jupiter, The Bringer of Jollity"
Alexander Borodin: Prince Igor, "Polovetsian Dances"
Dynamics, decrescendo: Bedřich Smetana: The Moldau
Dmitri Shostakovich: Ballet suite No. 1
Forte Dynamics: Maurice Ravel: Boléro (woodwinds)
Dynamics, Piano : Maurice Ravel: Boléro (clarinet solo)
Georges Bizet: L'arlésienne Suite No. 2. "Farandole"
Dynamics, pianissimo: Maurice Ravel: Boléro (opening, flute)
Modest Musorgsky: Pictures at an exhibition, "Great Gate of Kiev"
Richard Strauss: Don Juan, Op. 20
Dynamics, mezzo-forte: Maurice Ravel: Boléro (French horn)
Dynamics, sforzando: Claude Debussy: Children's Corner Suite, "Golliwog's Cakewalk"
Frédéric Chopin: Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
Dynamics, fortissimo: Maurice Ravel: Boléro (conclusion)
Franz Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody, No. 2
Last Updated: 2016-05-24 00:40:19